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Global warming could delay, weaken monsoons: study

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AFP

Indian vehicles ferry their passengers and loads through floodwaters after a heavy downpour of monsoon rain

CHICAGO (AFP) — Global warming could delay the start of the summer monsoon by five to 15 days within the next century and significantly reduce rainfall in much of South Asia, a recent study has found.

Rising global temperatures will likely lead to an eastward shift in monsoon circulation which could result in more rainfall over the Indian Ocean, Myanmar and Bangladesh but less over Pakistan, India and Nepal, the study found.

It could also result in longer delays between rainy seasons and intensify the risk of deadly floods by leading to a significant increase in average rainfalls in some coastal areas of western India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

That could have a major impact on agriculture, human health and the economies of the region, warned study author Noah Diffenbaugh.

“Almost half of the world’s population lives in areas affected by these monsoons, and even slight deviations from the normal monsoon pattern can have great impact,” said Diffenbaugh, interim director of Purdue University’s Climate Change Research Center.

“Agricultural production, water availability and hydroelectric power generation could be substantially affected by delayed monsoon onset and reduced surface runoff.”

The atmospheric conditions that lead to reduced rain also can lead to intensification of extremely hot conditions, said lead author Moetasim Ashfaq, a graduate student at Purdue.

“In the past when we have seen extremely hot days, we have observed a similar circulation anomaly,” Ashfaq said in a statement.

“These circulation changes decrease moisture flow over the land, and we see longer periods without rain, along with hot conditions.”

Ashfaq used a high-resolution climate model to map how global warming will affect the complex topography of South Asia by recreating the monsoon season of past years.

He found that increasing temperatures strengthen some aspects of large-scale monsoon circulation but weaken the fine-scale interactions of the land with the moisture in the atmosphere.

“Even with a strong monsoon system, if circulation changes enough to change where and when rain is delivered, then that could have an impact that has not been captured in the large-scale evaluations,” Ashfaq said.

The study was published in the January issue of the peer-reviewed journal Geophysical Research Letters.

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jlEsxGrBmhmZZKiKaJF7GQ34jb6Q

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Weakened Monsoon Season Predicted For South Asia, Due To Rising Temperatures

These maps show projected future changes in South Asian summer precipitation and monsoon onset date. A Purdue-led team found that rising future temperatures could lead to less rain and a delay in the start of monsoon season by up to 15 days by the end of the 21st century. (Credit: Diffenbaugh lab image)

ScienceDaily (Mar. 2, 2009) — The South Asian summer monsoon – critical to agriculture in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan – could be weakened and delayed due to rising temperatures in the future, according to a recent climate modeling study.

A Purdue University research group found that climate change could influence monsoon dynamics and cause less summer precipitation, a delay in the start of monsoon season and longer breaks between the rainy periods.

Noah Diffenbaugh, whose research group led the study, said the summer monsoon affects water resources, agriculture, economics, ecosystems and human health throughout South Asia.

“Almost half of the world’s population lives in areas affected by these monsoons, and even slight deviations from the normal monsoon pattern can have great impact,” said Diffenbaugh, an associate professor of earth and atmospheric sciences and interim director of the Purdue Climate Change Research Center. “Agricultural production, water availability and hydroelectric power generation could be substantially affected by delayed monsoon onset and reduced surface runoff. Alternatively, the model projects increases in precipitation over some areas, including Bangladesh, which could exacerbate seasonal flood risks.”

The summer monsoons are responsible for approximately 75 percent of the total annual rainfall in major parts of the region and produce almost 90 percent of India’s water supply, he said.

General circulation models have been used for projections of what may happen to monsoon patterns for this region, but the models have disagreed as to whether precipitation will increase or decrease, said Moetasim Ashfaq, lead author of the study and a graduate student in earth and atmospheric sciences at Purdue.

“South Asia is a unique region with very complex topography,” he said. “It ranges from 0 meters elevation from sea level in the south to more than 5,500 meters from sea level in the north. So in terms of topography playing a role in climate and weather, this region of the world is where we expect to see a large impact. Global models like the ones featured in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports can resolve large-scale interactions but have difficulty capturing some of the more subtle atmospheric processes.”

The research team used a high-resolution climate model believed to have the greatest detail currently available for this region. A paper detailing the work was published in the Jan. 3 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. Co-authors from Purdue include assistant professor Wen-wen Tung and associate professor Robert J. Trapp, both from the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. Additional co-authors include Ying Shi and Xueijie Gao of the National Climate Centre in Beijing and Jeremy S. Pal of Loyola Marymount University.

“Our simulations are the most detailed to date for this part of the world, but it doesn’t mean we have the answer,” Diffenbaugh said. “It highlights the importance of spatial complexity in the climate response and suggests that understanding the potential impacts of future climate change in this region requires improved understanding of a host of climate processes.”

The model projected a delay in the start of monsoon season from five days to 15 days by the end of the 21st century and an overall weakening of the summer monsoon precipitation over South Asia. Ashfaq said increasing temperatures in the future strengthen some aspects of large-scale monsoon circulation but weaken the fine-scale interactions of the land with the moisture in the atmosphere, which could lead to reduced precipitation over the Indian subcontinent.

“It is the more subtle, local-scale processes that are key in this case,” he said. “Our model shows a decrease in convective precipitation, which is critical for summer precipitation in this region. Our findings show it is not just a question of whether monsoon circulation is stronger or weaker. Even with a strong monsoon system, if circulation changes enough to change where and when rain is delivered, then that could have an impact that has not been captured in the large-scale evaluations.”

The atmospheric conditions that lead to reduced precipitation also can lead to intensification of extremely hot conditions, he said.

“In the past when we have seen extremely hot days, we have observed a similar circulation anomaly,” Ashfaq said. “These circulation changes decrease moisture flow over the land, and we see longer periods without rain, along with hot conditions.”

The model shows an eastward shift in monsoon circulation, which would mean more rainfall over the Indian Ocean, Bangladesh and Myanmar, and less over India, Nepal and Pakistan, Ashfaq said. Less moisture over the land in combination with the ambient dry summer air would lead to less moisture in the clouds and reduced rainfall.

Monsoon moisture flow comes from ocean to land. In the summer, the land warms faster than the ocean. This creates a pressure gradient that draws air masses from the ocean to the continent, bringing moist air that promotes formation of a large-scale monsoon system.

Monsoon season, which starts in early June and ends in late September, begins at the southeast tip of India and moves northwest to the rest of India and Pakistan.

The climate model used by the research team accurately recreated the monsoon season of past years, and its future projections are consistent with what has been seen in recent drought years over this region, Diffenbaugh said.

The team next plans to examine a broader range of global climate models and to assess the impact of potential future changes on food security and the economy.

The National Science Foundation partially funded this research.


Journal reference:

  1. Ashfaq et al. Suppression of south Asian summer monsoon precipitation in the 21st century. Geophysical Research Letters, 2009; 36 (1): L01704 DOI: 10.1029/2008GL036500
Adapted from materials provided by Purdue University.
See also:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090227112307.htm

Written by Lwin Aung Soe

March 2, 2009 at 5:18 am

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  1. `State Of Our World—Our Planet Earth—-Today ———————— Human Community Faced With An Unprecedented Challenge Today Possibility Of Its Non-Existence Outweighs The Possibility Of Its Continuity ***************************** I Adam Smith”s Thought In His Famous Writing “The Wealth Of Nations” Emphasises Only A One-Sided Approach The foregoing earth –shaking headlines can only be understood by seriously looking at the following facts. One is that this unprecedented challenge, in our view, is the outcome of the 258 years old (1750—2008) existing corporate vision, its system and agenda which are capital based, market-led and individual or self-oriented. In turn, the corporate vision, its system and agenda have themselves arisen from the fundamental thesis of the world famous philosopher, Adam Smith’s thought which lays down his 3 basic propositions, namely,” man is selfish by nature,” “capital is the basis of society” and market is the perspective or determining factor of capital” in his world famous writing or book, “ the Wealth of Nations”. . However , the below –noted facts show that the above described whole Adam Smithen approach is one-sided Firstly, its position that “man is selfish by nature” is only a one-sided approach. In reality, however, man-kind bears a 2-sided character: biological, on the one hand , and social , on the other. The biological aspect reflects, the individual physical living of mankind , while the social side denotes its social living, functioning and organizing as contained in the various kinds of world constitutions, like the U N , its monetary bodies , like the World Bank , International Monetary Fund, World Trade organization, etc. Secondly its proposition that capital is the basis of human society or human society is based on capital is fundamentally a wrong concept. Capital in reality is only made up of money or currency. How can human society, i.e., human beings, who always and everywhere need proper environmental and feeding conditions for maintaining their lives, sustain on money or currency made up of papers or coins. Thirdly, its proposition that market is the perspective , barometer or determining factor of capital is clearly a capitalist instrument or technique to boost the capital and its owners and to harm the interests of people in terms of money and wealth. Looking at over 258 year long practice of Adam Smithen ( corporate capitalist) theory and its system, it can be safely stated that , while its positive side includes many contributions in all scientific and social sectors, its negative side comprises the creation of highly dangerous challenges, chiefly in the sphere of environment and human survival. Here, in our view, it may be desirable and relevant to have a serious and close look at the Marxian standpoint concerning Adam Smithen theory of 3 basic principles. Although the Marxian ( communist) theory has ceased to exist in the world, still its experience can be useful for social study. The Marxian theory takes a confusing stand on the question of human nature . Firstly, it emphasizes that mankind is social by nature. The next moment it transfers the quality of being social to the industrial proletariat ( who is according to it destined to be the liberator of humankind ) . and , finally , it passes the entire monopoly of this social characteristic on to the communist party which alone, in its view, has the capacity to bring a social transformation in human society. And ultimately it concentrates the whole authority in one person, i.e., the communist party general secretary who remains the dictator for the whole of his life till death. Marx holds capital as workers surplus value, i.e., the excess value produced by the workers during the course of their work over their paid wages, or, in other words, the worker produces more value during his fixed work-time than his wages which is taken away by the capitalist. Thus it also considers money as capital. Marx stands for socialization or nationalization of the means of production as its goal. Marxian theory maintains that the single party run-state is the only institution that can take fruitful and just decisions in all economic/ market activities, including production, distribution, price-determining. It concentrates the whole development authority in the hands of the communist party politicians and bureaucrats. While clamouring to uphold economic equality , it assigns special economic rights to the communist party cadre, followed by official bureaucracy and labour aristocracy. Viewing over 75 year practice of the Marxian theory and its system, one can say that its positive side provides many useful and beneficial achievements, while the negative aspect contains many serious failures which led to its eclipse from the competition with its rival Adam Smithen (corporate capitalist) theory and its system in the realm of human development and welfare. II World Conferences Organised By The Chief Leaders Of The Corporate System Have Proved Zero-Sum Exercise Leaving aside the Marxian theory and again taking up the deceptive practice, i.e., the practice of saying one thing and doing another, of the existing world corporate system, let us look at the recently held series of World Conferences organized by the chief leaders of the corporate system. Over the past 4 decades, a number of high level conferences on sustainable development have been held to chalk out workable strategies to counteract the impending environmental catastrophes, but till date all these conclaves have proved to be zero sum exercises. Beginning from 1972 the Stockholm Conference, followed sequentially by Helsinki (1989), London ( (1992), Rio-Summit ( 1992), Kyoto Summit (1997), World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg ( 2002), the conventions / summits in 2004 and 2005 in Stockholm and Montreal and Berlin and in 2007 Bali Conference have in unison attributed nothing fruitful. The world became conscious of the growing population menaces in the late 1960’s. since then, three international population conferences—Bucharest 1974, Maxico 1984, and Cario 1994— have taken place. The first conference made development, i.e., the role of women, education, health-care, etc, as the focus for population control, relegating the social factor to secondary place. The second conference laid more emphasis on economic factor and made “eliminate mass hunger” in the interest of peace, security and environment as the central issue, again laying less stress on social sector. The Cario Conference stressed certain social issues as the basis of its strategy but left out the question of social and economic security. It mainly emphasized the following points: 1) woman as the most important component of the population policy, aiming at the empowerment of woman, gender equity or, equal family partnership(not confrontation), reproductive rights, reduction of infant and maternal mortality, higher marriage age, increasing birth-spacing, etc. 2) Universal primary education, particularly for girls, in 20. 3) Universal access to family planning, information and services. 4) concept of reducing fertility even in poverty conditions.5) futility of some of the traditional family conception held by the religious orthodoxy as revealed in the debate on abortion. 6) Need for a dialogue between the North and the South on the sharing of world resources, now being overused and abused by the western development model and living style. The facts show that, despite the high-sounding action plans proposed by the said conferences and their implementation by various govts all over the world, the state of population problem has gone on worsening. There is not even a single region in the world where the process of population growth has shown any sign of relaxation or halting. World agriculture is, in general, faced with a multi-dimensional crisis. This can be seen from the May 2005 report released by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. the report said,” close to midway mark of 2015 deadline set by the World Food Summit in 1996 for reducing hunger, Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has described the progress made so far as “disappointing.” The World Food Summit goal was set in 1996 and reinforced by Millennium Development Summit (MDS) in 2000. “we almost certain to miss by a wide margin the target for cutting the number of undernourished people in half( by 2015), if the current trends persist,” The FAO- convened World Food Summit at Rome (Nov 1996) has committed to providing world food security and the right of all people to have access to safe and nutritious food. It had called for eradication hunger the world over and reducing the number of hungry to half by the year 2015. However, the goal indicated at above 1996-World Food Summit and repeated by 2001—World Food Summit has proved unattainable due to serious differences among the corporate ruling and business circles over the usefulness and benefit of such a measure. According to the 2003-UNHDR, the disparity trend between rich and the poor and the high and low continues unabated, without any sign of reduction in size or halting at some point. The 2002-UNHDR expresses: the world’s richest 1% receive as much in terms of income as the poorest 75%. The 2001-UNHDR writes: of the 4.6 billion people in developing countries more than 850 million are illiterate, nearly a billion lack access sanitation. The 1999-UNHDR says: by the late 1990’s, the fifth of the world’s people living in the highest income countries had 86% of world GDP—the bottom fifth just 1% and 74% of world telephone lines, today’s basic means of communication—the bottom fifth just 1.5%. The 1996-UNHDR tells: just three of the world’s richest people have the combined GDP of the 48 least developed countries. Looking at the human side of the ongoing crisis, even the pro-corporate global institutions concerned with economic growth, i.e., the UNO, WB, IMF, WTO, etc have now been stressing the unsustainable mode of existing corporate development model, characterized by many unendurable troubles, like inequality, poverty, unemployment, social injustice, etc. The 2003-ILO report shows that global unemployment continued its relentless climb in 2003. unemployment hit a record 185.9 million ( i.e., 6.2% of the total labour force) for men and women during 2003, the highest figure ever recorded despite a second half economic recovery, rising sharply for young people. Among the world’s unemployed, some 108.1 million were men and 77.8 million women. The ILO report— Global Employment Trend for youth 2004— is a new analysis prepared by its employment strategy department. It says that young people, aged 15 and 24 year, now represent nearly half of the world’s jobless. In fact, youth unemployment has sky-rocketed worldwide over the past decade to some 88 million. Human Development Report 2007/2008 Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21st Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country—however wealthy or powerful—will be immune to the impact of global warming. The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren. There is a window of opportunity for avoiding the most damaging climate change impacts, but that window is closing: the world has less than a decade to change course. Actions taken—or not taken—in the years ahead will have a profound bearing on the future course of human development. The world lacks neither the financial resources nor the technological capabilities to act. What is missing is a sense of urgency, human solidarity and collective interest. As the Human Development Report 2007/2008 argues, climate change poses challenges at many levels. In a divided but ecologically interdependent world, it challenges all people to reflect upon how we manage the environment of the one thing that we share in common: planet Earth. It challenges us to reflect on social justice and human rights across countries and generations. It challenges political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and early cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. Above all, it challenges the entire human community to undertake prompt and strong collective action based on shared values and a shared vision. The Human Development Report 2007/2008 comes at a time when climate change—long on the international agenda—is starting to receive the very highest attention that it merits. The recent findings of the IPCC sounded a clarion call; they have unequivocally affirmed the warming of our climate system and linked it directly to human activity. The effects of these changes are already grave, and they are growing. This year’s Report is a powerful reminder of all that is atstake: climate change threatens a ‘twin catastrophe’, with early setbacks in human development for the world’s poor being succeeded by longer term dangers for all of humanity. We are already beginning to see these catastrophes unfold. As sea levels rise and tropical storms gather in intensity, millions of people face displacement. Dryland inhabitants, some of the most vulnerable on our planet, have to cope with more frequent and more sustained droughts. And as glaciers retreat, water supplies are being put at risk. This early harvest of global warming is having a disproportionate effect on the world’s poor, and is also hindering efforts to achieve the MDGs. Yet, in the longer run, no one—rich or poor—can remain immune from the dangers brought by climate change. I am convinced that what we do about this challenge will define the era we live in as much as it defines us. I also believe that climate change is exactly the kind of global challenge that the United Nations is best suited to address. That is why I have made it my personal priority to work with Member States to ensure that the United Nations plays its role to the full. Tackling climate change requires action on two fronts. First, the world urgently needs to step up action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Industrialized countries need to make deeper emission reductions. There needs to be further engagement of developing countries, as well as incentives for them to limit their emissions while safeguarding economic growth and efforts to eradicate poverty. Adaptation is the second global necessity. Many countries, especially the most vulnerable developing nations, need assistance in improving their capacity to adapt. There also needs to be a major push to generate new technologies for combating climate change, to make existing renewable technologies economically viable, and to promote a rapid diffusion of technology. Climate change threatens the entire human family. Yet it also provides an opportunity to come together and forge a collective response to a global problem. It is my hope that we will rise as one to face this challenge, and leave a better world for future generations. Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General of the United Nations Human Development Report 2006 Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis Throughout history water has confronted humanity with some of its greatest challenges. Water is a source of life and a natural resource that sustains our environments and supports livelihoods – but it is also a source of risk and vulnerability. In the early 21st Century, prospects for human development are threatened by a deepening global water crisis. Debunking the myth that the crisis is the result of scarcity, this report argues poverty, power and inequality are at the heart of the problem. In a world of unprecedented wealth, almost 2 million children die each year for want of a glass of clean water and adequate sanitation. Millions of women and young girls are forced to spend hours collecting and carrying water, restricting their opportunities and their choices. And water-borne infectious diseases are holding back poverty reduction and economic growth in some of the world’s poorest countries. Beyond the household, competition for water as a productive resource is intensifying. Symptoms of that competition include the collapse of water-based ecological systems, declining river flows and large-scale groundwater depletion. Conflicts over water are intensifying within countries, with the rural poor losing out. The potential for tensions between countries is also growing, though there are large potential human development gains from increased cooperation. The Human Development Report continues to frame debates on some of the most pressing challenges facing humanity. Human Development Report 2006: • Investigates the underlying causes and consequences of a crisis that leaves 1.2 billion people without access to safe water and 2.6 billion without access to sanitation • Argues for a concerted drive to achieve water and sanitation for all through national strategies and a global plan of action • Examines the social and economic forces that are driving water shortages and marginalizing the poor in agriculture • Looks at the scope for international cooperation to resolve cross-border tensions in water management • Includes special contributions from Gordon Brown and Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, President Lula, President Carter, and the former UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan. Human Development Report 2005 International cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world This 2005 Human Development Report takes stock of human development, including progress towards the MDGs. Looking beyond statistics; it highlights the human costs of missed targets and broken promises. Extreme inequality between countries and within countries is identified as one of the main barriers to human development—and as a powerful brake on accelerated progress towards the MDGs. The report suggests that the world’s governments are faced with a choice. They can start a decade for development with the financial resources, technology and capacity to end poverty or we could have a human development failure. “Business as usual” will not allow fulfilling the promises and the commitments made in 2000. The cost of this failure will be measured in human lives, increased inequalities, violations of human rights and threats to peace. International aid, one of the most effective weapons in the war against poverty, needs to be renovated and reshaped. It should be thought as an investment as well as a moral imperative. In this respect, three conditions for effective aid are: • sufficient quantity; • better quality (delivered on a predictable value for money basis,with low transaction cost); and • country ownership. Failure in any one area undermines the foundations for future progress. The 2005 Report presents: • A comprehensive overview of international development assistance, looking at both its quality and quantity; • A critical review of progress in the “Doha Development Round” of trade negotiations, highlighting how unfair trade rules reinforce inequality; and • Evidence of the human development costs of violent conflict, and a review of strategies for conflict prevention. The UNEP 2005 Annual Report looks at the organization’s work and achievements during the year. Under the headings ‘Environment for a Secure Future’ and ‘Protecting Nature’s Capital’ it gives an overview of UNEP’s contribution to sustainable development in a year in which world leaders reaffirmed the centrality of environment for development and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment revealed the extent of global environmental decline This summary of UNEP’s activities in 2007 provides an overview of the organization’s contribution to the fight against climate change in a year in which unequivocal evidence established that global warming is the defining challenge of our era. The report also looks at the broad range of other activities carried out by UNEP as it follows its mandate to provide environmental leadership and promote sustainable development The World Health Report 2007 – A safer future: global public health security in the 21st century marks a turning point in the history of public health, and signals what could be one of the biggest advances in health security in half a century. It shows how the world is at increasing risk of disease outbreaks, epidemics, industrial accidents, natural disasters and other health emergencies which can rapidly become threats to global public health security. The report explains how the revised International Health Regulations (2005), which came into force this year, helps countries to work together to identify risks and act to contain and control them. The regulations are needed because no single country, regardless of capability or wealth, can protect itself from outbreaks and other hazards without the cooperation of others. The report says the prospect of a safer future is within reach – and that this is both a collective aspiration and a mutual responsibility. The world health report 2006 – working together for health The World Health Report 2006 – Working together for health contains an expert assessment of the current crisis in the global health workforce and ambitious proposals to tackle it over the next ten years, starting immediately. The report reveals an estimated shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses and support workers worldwide. The shortage is most severe in the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where health workers are most needed. Focusing on all stages of the health workers’ career lifespan from entry to health training, to job recruitment through to retirement, the report lays out a ten-year action plan in which countries can build their health workforces, with the support of global partners. The World Health Report 2005 – Make Every Mother and Child Count The World Health Report 2005 – Make Every Mother and Child Count, says that this year almost 11 million children under five years of age will die from causes that are largely preventable. Among them are 4 million babies who will not survive the first month of life. At the same time, more than half a million women will die in pregnancy, childbirth or soon after. The report says that reducing this toll in line with the Millennium Development Goals depends largely on every mother and every child having the right to access to health care from pregnancy through childbirth, the neonatal period and childhood. Rome Declaration on World Food Security • we will ensure an enabling political, social, and economic environment designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and for durable peace, based on full and equal participation of women and men, which is most conducive to achieving sustainable food security for all; • we will implement policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and improving physical and economic access by all, at all times, to sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe food and its effective utilization; • we will pursue participatory and sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and rural development policies and practices in high and low potential areas, which are essential to adequate and reliable food supplies at the household, national, regional and global levels, and combat pests, drought and desertification, considering the multifunctional character of agriculture; • we will strive to ensure that food, agricultural trade and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through a fair and market-oriented world trade system; • we will endeavour to prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies and to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery, rehabilitation, development and a capacity to satisfy future needs; • we will promote optimal allocation and use of public and private investments to foster human resources, sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry systems, and rural development, in high and low potential areas; • we will implement, monitor, and follow-up this Plan of Action at all levels in cooperation with the international community. We pledge our actions and support to implement the World Food Summit Plan of Action. Rome, 13 November 1996 World Food Summit Plan of Action COMMITMENT ONE We will ensure an enabling political, social, and economic environment designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and for durable peace, based on full and equal participation of women and men, which is most conducive to achieving sustainable food security for all. TWO We will implement policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and improving physical and economic access by all, at all times, to sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe food and its effective utilization THREE We will pursue participatory and sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and rural development policies and practices in high and low potential areas, which are essential to adequate and reliable food supplies at the household, national, regional and global levels, and combat pests, drought and desertification, considering the multifunctional character of agriculture. FOUR We will strive to ensure that food, agricultural trade and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through a fair and market-oriented world trade system FIVE We will endeavour to prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies and to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery, rehabilitation, development and a capacity to satisfy future needs SIX We will promote optimal allocation and use of public and private investments to foster human resources, sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry systems, and rural development, in high and low potential areas. SEVEN We will implement, monitor, and follow-up this Plan of Action at all levels in cooperation with the international community. The actual judgment of the above said conferences is: where have they led the human community. This can be seen from the UNIPCC’s latest report. III United Nations Intergovernmental Panel’s Report On Climate Change As regards the environment, World Scientific Community ( UNIPCC) has unanimously warned the whole human race, its administrative and ruling circles, just in the year 2007 that if the present level of the generation of green house gasses is not reduced by 50% by the year 2050, there is all likelihood of the extinction of all types of bio-life on our planet Earth by the end of 21st Century. UNIPCC Summary Report Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21st century. Failure to respond to that challenge will endanger human community and the whole bio-life on our planet earth. The poorest countries and the most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country—-however wealthy or powerful—will be immune to the impact of global warming The IPCC Summary report shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing danger. meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business- as usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren There is a window of opportunity for avoiding the most d am aging climate change impacts, but that window is closing: the world h as less than a decade to change course. Actions taken—or not taken —in the years ahead will have a profound bearing on the future course of hum an development. The world lacks neither the financial resources nor the technological capabilities to act. What is missing is hum an solidarty and a sense of collective interest. As the IPCC Summary Report argues, climate change poses challenges at many levels. In a divided but ecologically interdependent world, it challenges all people to reflect upon how we m an age the environment of one thing that we share in common: Planet Earth. It challenges political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and early cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. above all, it challenges the entire hum an community to undertake prompt and strong collective action based on shared values and shared vision The Deadly Challenge Of Climate Change Began To Arise Only 250 Years Before The UNIPCC report clearly states that the planet earth was pollution-free before the advent of capitalism some 300 years back. By1750, pollution began to appear. The expert reports point out that increase in Green Houses Gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitro-oxides) concentration, was primarily because of fossil fuel use and land use change. While the increase in carbon dioxide was due to fossil fuel use, the methane and nitro-oxides concentration was because of agriculture. In particular, the increase in carbon dioxide concentration from 280 ppm( part per million) in 1750 to 379 ppm in 2007 is far greater than the natural increase ( from 180ppm to 300ppm) over the last 650,000 years. According to the scenario for the lowest stabilisation level assessed by the IPCC, a long term goal in line with the latest science would include a peak in emissions in the next 10- 15 years and a decline of the emissions by 50% over 2000 levels by 2050. this would stablise emissions at around 450 PPM Co2 eq in the atmosphere and correspond to a 2- 2.4C rise in temperature IV Nature-Human Centric Vision Nature-Human Centric Vision:– The vision of Nature-Human Centric Peoples Movement to anticipate the future or coming events. Nature-Human Centric Peoples Movement’s assessment is that it is going to be a highly challenging future. A look at 2050 shows that we shall be confronted with 5— fatal challenges. A) The first one is challenge of global warming, the most deadly for the human community—- finishing it for ever. B) The second one is increasing human population which will go up to 9.5 billion more than the 8 billion capacity of our planet earth. C) The third one is agricultural crisis due to varying environmental and human factors. Decrease in the area of cultivation and disruption of agro-factors. D) The fourth one is decrease in the availability of pure drinking water, causing human health crisis. E) The fifth one is spread of fatal and irremedial diseases. II What is the cause of these challenges ? it is the ongoing system which is capital based, market-led, individual or self-oriented and headed by the money equipped highly corrupt politicians. III Then what is our task ? It is to mobilize the people against the ongoing system, its capitalist base, market priority and individual or self-orientation. IV What is our alternative to this system? It is to establish Nature-Human oriented system, based on the following socially just principles. V Nature-Human Centric Immediate Agenda Nature–human centric peoples movement (NHCPM) maintains that, given an all-embracing dreadful environmental-humanitarian global crisis, the world needs an immediate agenda corresponding to its existing ground realities. The first ground reality of the world is the prevalence of a life or death challenge of climate change to all bio-phenomena on the earth. Here, naturally the problem is as to who should organize the repairing work to climate damage. Since corporate sector is the creator of the climate change crisis and since all major corporate powers have so far failed to make a proper response to the environmental changes occurring in the past, it will be more appropriate that the present climate repairing task be handed over to the U N General Assembly instead of entrusting it over to the Security Council or G8 group or big Corporate Business Circles –all of which are dominated by corporate vested interests — the real creators of the challenge of global warming or climate change. In the General Assembly, where the decisions are taken on the majority basis, there is little likelihood of the superpowers or rich nations domination. Each meeting of the UN General Assembly will elect its chairman from among its members and the UN Secretary General will act as the spokesman of the General Assembly. The second ground reality of the world is the existence of various tension-points among different countries of the world. Here, the UN General Assembly should take the following steps. The forging of a treaty of peace and friendship among all countries of the world, declaring that they will resolve all conflicts, big or small, between them through peaceful means. The third ground reality of the world is the prevalence of various divisive and differenciated approaches and standpoints among different countries of the world, especially among the big powers, on the issues facing the world. Here the task is to resolve all disputes in a peaceful way to establish a firm peace in the world, because world peace is the basic requirement to the challenge of climate change. Further, every effort should be made to persuade countries to follow a foreign policy based on peace and friendship. Here, the UN General Assembly should undertake to establish a firm peace in the world by taking the following steps: Peaceful resolution of all disputes in the world, particularly Jammu-Kashmir , Palestine, Sri Lanka, Dyfore, etc. In case of a just solution to Jammu-Kashmir problem, a joint Indo-Pak Condominium be entrusted to handle its (JK’s) defence, foreign affairs and currency. In all other matters, the different ethno-cultural and linguistic regions of Jammu Kashmir, including Pak-Administered Jammu-Kashmir, should have full-fledged self- rule. A similar type of just arrangement be worked out in the case of, Palestine, Dyfore, Sri lanka, etc. The fourth ground reality of the world is the accumulated vast stock of nuclear weapons with the nuclear powers. Here, the UN general Assembly should undertake to demand from the existing nuclear powers that, taking into consideration the life or death challenge of global warming, they should destroy all their nuclear stockpiles and other dangerous weapons of mass destruction immediately. And, in future, they should undertake not to produce any weapon of mass destruction. The fifth ground reality of the world is the existence of large number of country-wise powerful armed forces who have no role to play in today’s world. Hence, the UN General Assembly should undertake to resolve all inter-country disputes existing in the world within a period of six months. Following the completion of the fore-going task, the UN General Assembly should ask all countries to stop spending on their military budgets. Again, all countries should stop 50% of their defence expenditure within two years and the next 50% within 5 years. All demobilized defence personnel be provided equivalent jobs on the pay scales they were previously having in the defence department. The sixth ground reality is the existence of a national development model specific to each country. Here, the UN General Assembly should set up a high-powered UN Sustainable Development Council to act as global authority by intergrating all the national development models for combating global warming and conservation and promotion of the environmental resources, on the one hand, and the development of human resources, on the other. The council should enact fundamental international reforms in regard to environment and human advancement. The finance for the council will come from global taxation, such as global trade, use of natural resources like oil, coal, communication satellites, air travel, Antarctica mining, sea-bed mining, oceanic transportation, etc; the UN General Assembly will devise the scheme for the distribution of the said global revenues between the UN and the member states in which the least developed countries will be given special consideration. The seventh ground reality is the prevalence of an unfair trade between the developed and the under-developed countries. Here, the WTO should act as a centre to see that the trade between rich and poor countries is conducted on a fair basis. The eighth ground reality is the requirement of finance by the less developed countries. Here, the IMF and the world Bank should be on guard that there is a fair distribution of finance among various categories of countries. The ninth ground reality is the developing water crisis in various parts of the world. Here, a new World Water Commission be set up by the UN to arrange the supply of minimum needed water to the people in the various water scarcity areas. The tenth ground reality is that, taking into consideration the possibility of decreasing food production, the UN should request the FAO to formulate a food policy that takes practical steps to provide foodstuffs to all food deficit areas. The eleventh ground reality is to improve and update agriculture to meet the food requirements of the world people. Here, the whole farming community in different countries be motivated to organize agriculture on the co-operative basis. The twelfth ground reality is the worsening state of poverty in various countries, especially the under-developed ones. Here, there is need to take practical steps to deal with the poverty problem as a priority issue. The thirteenth ground reality is that all countries must focus to eradicate the ever-increasing social evils like, crime, corruption, lack of sanitation, housing, old-age security, etc., on a just basis. The fourteenth ground reality is to pay serious attention to the issue of human rights violations in almost all countries of the world. The fifteenth ground reality is that the educational system should aim at developing the humanatarian-cum-environmental values among the students and not concentrate on developing the instinct of individualistic personality-cult among them as is being done today. The sixteenth ground reality is the worsening state of human health. Here, a proper response is the acceptance of human health as a fundamental right by all countries. The seventeenth ground reality is the existence of a threat from religious fundamentalism or terrorism which, in our view, should be countered not through military means but with humanatarian and environmental values. The eighteenth ground reality is that unemployment problem in every region, whether it is developed or underdeveloped, is increasing fastly. The slow pace of job creation even in countries with relatively high growth rates has left 500 million unemployed or underemployed in a region with a total labour force of 1.7 billion. In the 1980s, the ADB study calculates, it took a 3%growth rate in China to induce 1% increase in employment, compared to the 8% growth rate that was required to achieve the same result the following decade. This demands that new working avenues be explored in the vast domain of worsening environmental sector. The nineteenth ground reality is the persistant continuation of the problem of burgeoning world population which is as threatening as the challenge of climate change. According to expert reports, the present growth-rate of population will result in a situation where the entire land area of the world will be required to accommodate 9.2 billion people by the year 2050. The solution lies in establishing a rational and just society which ensures social security to all, weakening the motivation of having blood descendants as a guarantee against old age or some other insecurity. Last, but the most important, ground reality is that people on our planet are the singlemost force and the only source to bring any change on our planet and to save bio-life on this earth. And the people can play a positive role only if they are properly organized on the basis of a clear, just, fair and rational model. Such a needed model, in our view, may be found in the NHCPM (Nature-Human Centric Peoples Movement) agenda comprising, in brief, the following Firstly, the most important thing in society is the people and natural resources and nothing else. While the corporate capitalism falsifies that only capital is the most precious thing in society. Secondly, it is first of all necessary to uphold the fundamental human task of environmental (i.e., air, water, land, forest, bio-diversity, etc) sustainability at all times and places Thirdly, our next principle is the all-round constitutional empowerment of the people. A) Economic Empowerment : the people should be empowered economically by ensuring social security to every one as a fundamental right with regard to clean air , pure-drinking water, nutritious food, housing, clothing and free health facilities and education, etc. Fair equality based on 1:5 income difference in order to bring economic harmony among the extremely divided categories of a handful of rich and the vast majority of poor people. B) Political Empowerment: Political process be headed by the people and conducted through the dedicated social workers ( or their front); the election be entirely free where every one has the right to participate as a candidate and as a voter. Ending of state power monopoly of the corrupt and money and power hungry political parties by introducing the rule of the state funding of elections to each individual candidate. All development funds to be spent through elected peoples development committees (including the Gram Sabhas and not above that), abrogating the current rule of allotting crores of rupees to each MP and lakhs of rupees to each M L A for development spending in their constituencies. People should be empowered to recall any assembly or Parliament member if 1/5th of voters demand in writng. The political parties should get their candidates sponsored from the people before contesting any election. People’s sponsored candidate can be one who gets one thousand signatures of his electors in t5he assembly and five thousands in the parliamentary elections. C) Cultural Empowerment stands for a way of life (life-style) which is embedded in basic human and environmental values and promotes rational humanist and environmentalist thinking, behaviour and organization among the people. D) Empowerment Of Women by giving them 50% reservations in the parliament, assemblies and administration ,plus jobs in the organized big industry. Gradually. this principle should become a rule to be applied in all social, economic and cultural spheres. E) Workers Empowerment: in the organized sector, concerned workers organizations, united within a single workers front, to have 1/3rd representation in the management board of all types of big industry, institutions, projects and factories. In small and medium industries, concerned workers elected forums should be entitled to act as consultation boards to the each concerned management. F) Empowerment Of Informal Labour: in the retail sector, all workers engaged in small scale private trade should be organized into unions at all places ( i.e., cities, towns and countryside) and provided cheap credit, all types of free market facilities, free trawlers to move from one place to another or free of rent small shops in big city markets. G) Empowerment Of Farmers: in the rural sector, the entire peasantry, the rich farmers as well as the landless peasants be organized on the basis of co-operative farming as the fundamental policy of the state. Each such co-operative be provided necessary govt help to develop its own market mechanism, procure its required agricultural inputs at cheap rates and build its credit system with the help of loans from the co-operative credit agencies. Promoting the fundamental human task of justice, equality and fairness in all walks of life. I.) Democratization of all industrial and services sectors by ending their corporate and state monopoly control and managing them through ordinary share-holders (2/3rd representation) and workers, (with 1/3rd representation). j.) Finance management: while the corporate sector upholds the monopoly corporate management and control and the state sector supports the monopoly bureaucratic management and control, the nature-human centric development model stands for democratic management and control of public companies by elected joint committees, each comprising 2/3rd elected members from ordinary share-holders and 1/3rd elected workers representatives in place of permanent corporators. All promoters shares purchased at cheaper rates (than market rates) and owned by corporate management be ended. k). Jurisprudence to be based on the fundamental principle of safe- guarding and protecting the interests of environmental and human resources. Any disregard of the foregoing principle to be dealt with the aim of reforming the offender, while prescribing punishment according to the severity of the offence. Punishment may include all human forms that have existed in history except the sentence to death. VI Nature-Human Centric Short Term Agenda The Nature-Human Centric Peoples Movement (NHCPM) holds that the human community at the present juncture is confronted with a highly dangerous environmental –humanatarian crisis. The challenge is so serious that, if it is not answered by a realistic agenda, the consequences can be very very harmful for the humanitarian cause. Such a grave situation, first of all, needs a complete unity among the different segments of humankind. And the factor of unity demands the ending of all types of conflicts within the human community. The only way to achieve human unity and the ending of all types of conflicts within the human community lies in eliminating all sorts of existing injustice in the world. The NHCPM is of the view that a justice-based world is quite possible on the foundation of an all-inclusive social justice and this requires the restructuring of the existing unjust corporate system. To restructure the existing unjust corporate system on a just basis, the NHCPM puts forth the following 15 points for public information, association and action. It requests all those who accept the rationality of these points to propagate them determinedly, steadfastly and wholeheartedly before the people Whenever and wherever elections become due in any region or the country as a whole, it appeals to the voters to make these 15 principles as yardstick to ascertain the genuineness of their contesting candidates by requesting them to put their signatures in support of these just points. Those who sign deserve the voters support, while anyone shirking to do so is obviously devoid of a just and rational approach. 1) Upholding the fundamental human task of environmental (i.e., air, water, land, forest, bio-diversity, etc) sustainability at all times and places. 2) Human right of existence ensured through social security as a fundamental right with regard to clean air, pure-drinking water, nutritious food, housing, clothing and free health facilities and education 3) Human right of fair equality based on 1:5 income-difference. 4) Peaceful resolution of all disputes in the world, particularly Jammu Kashmir and Palestine, Sri Lanka, etc. In case of a just solution to Jammu Kashmir problem, a joint Indo-Pak Condominium be entrusted to handle its (J K’s) defence and foreign affairs. In all other matters ( except defence and foreign affairs), J K should have independence, while each of its 9 ethnic regions be given maximum-possible autonomy. A similar type of just arrangement be worked out in case of Israel, Palestine and Sri Lanka also. 5) Restructuring of the world order by ending the veto-powers of the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council and by giving absolute power of deciding any issue to the UN general assembly on the basis of a simple majority vote. 6) Restructuring of WTO, WB and IMF on the basis of substituting their free market perspective by nature-human centric perspective and their development strategy favouring money and money-owners by the nature-human centric development strategy, comprising two top priorities, i.e., Man and Environment and Nature-Human Centric 5 principles, i. e., environmental sustainability, equity, productivity, people-led democracy and all-sided transparency. 7) Women’s empowerment, ensuring their 50% representation in all social institutions at all levels. 8) Co-operative farming, ensuring the livelihood security of all concerned. 9) Labour-both physical (or blue collar) and mental (or white collar) –empowerment, ensuring workers 1/3rd elected representation in the management of all institutions, projects and factories. 10) Democratization of all industrial and services sectors by ending their corporate and state monopoly control and managing them through ordinary share-holders (2/3rd representation) and workers, (with 1/3rd representation). 11) Finance management: while the corporate sector upholds the monopoly corporate management and control and the state sector supports the monopoly bureaucratic management and control, the nature-human centric development model stands for democratic management and control of public companies by elected joint committees, each composing 2/3rd elected members from ordinary share-holders and 1/3rd elected workers representatives in place of permanent corporators. All promoters shares be purchased at cheaper rates (than market rates) and owned by corporate management be ended. 12) Political process be headed by the people and conducted through the dedicated social workers ( or their front); the election be entirely free where every one has the right to participate as candidate and as a voter. 13) Ending of state power monopoly of the corrupt and money and power hungry political parties by introducing the rule of the state funding of elections to each individual candidate ( who is required to produce one thousand signatures of his electors in assembly and five thousand in Parliament elections), without any consideration to his party affiliation. Concerned voters right to recall any assembly or Parliament member if 1/5th of voters demand in writing a re-poll on the ground that the afore-mentioned member has lost the confidence of his electorate. 14) All development funds to be spent through elected peoples development committees ( including the village committees and not above that), abrogating the current rule of allotting crores of rupees to each MP and lakhs of rupees to each M L A for development spending in his constituency. 15) Jurisprudence to be based on the fundamental principle of safe-guarding and protecting the interests of environmental and human resources. Any disregard of the foregoing principle to be dealt with the aim of reforming the offender, while prescribing punishment according to the severity of the offence. Punishment may include all human forms that have existed in history except the sentence to death. VII Nature-Human Centric Long Term Agenda The Nature-Human Centric Peoples Movement is of the view that the basic solution to the ongoing deadly crisis resides in the replacement of present Corporate Capitalist System by the Nature-human Centric System whose objective, principles, styles and organization stands for two top priorities, i.e., environment and man and which follows five basic principles: i.e., environmental promotion, fair equality (i.e., social security to every deprived and needy person and the rationalization of irrational income differences in the proportion of 1:5), productivity (or growth-rate), peoples-led democracy ( i. e., empowerment of the people in place of corporate capital supported political parties and business circles) and all-sided transparency. The main points of Nature-Human Centric System comprise as under. 1. Nature-Human Centric Model of human society holds environment and humankind as the 2 most precious phenomena in human society, considers the two as its social capital (supreme thing in human society) whose (i.e., environmental-human resources) growth brings development, prosperity and progress and maintains them as its guiding principle in thinking, saying, doing and organizing. 2.It strongly advocates the fundamental task of environment (i.e., air. water. Land, forests, bio-Diversity, etc.) promotion at all times and places 3. It maintains the fundamental right of every human to bio-social existence, ensured through a network of social security with regard to clean air, pure-drinking water, nutritious food, housing, clothing, free health facilities and education. 4. It stands for fundamental human right of fair equality, based on 1:5 income differences. 5. It firmly upholds the principle of world peace and steadfastly follows the path of peaceful resolution of all disputes in the world, particularly Jammu-Kashmir, Palestine and Sri Lanka, etc. In the case of a just solution of Jammu-Kashmir problem, it advocates that a joint Indo-¬Pak Condominium be entrusted to handle its (JKs) defence, foreign affair and currency, in all other matters, JK should have independence, while each of its 9 ethnic regions be given maximum-possible autonomy. A similar type of just arrangement be worked out in case of Israel, Palestine and Dyfore also. 6. It demands the restructuring of the world order by ending the veto-¬powers now enjoyed by the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council and by giving the absolute power of deciding any issue to the UN General Assembly on the basis of a simple majority vote. In due course, UN be restructured on the basis of a constitution framed by a constituent assembly elected by the people from various constituencies in the world. 7. It argues for the restructuring of WTO, WB and IMF on the basis of substituting their free market economic perspective by Nature-Human Centric Perspective and their (i.e., WTO, WB and IMF) development strategy favouring money and money-owners by a Nature-Human Centric development strategy, comprising two top priorities, i.e., human and environmental, and 5 principles. i.e., environmental promotion, fair equality, productivity, peoples-led democracy and all-sided transparency. 8. It champions the women’s cause and demands their empowerment, ensuring them 50% representation in all social institutions at all levels. 9. It promotes the organizing of agriculture on co-operative basis, ensuring the livelihood security of all concerned. 10. It forcefully speaks for labour (both physical and mental) empowerment, ensuring workers 1/3rd elected representation in the management of all institutions, projects and factories. 11. It pleads for the decentralization of all industrial and services sectors by ending their corporate and state monopoly control and managing them through ordinary shareholders (with 2/3rd representation) and workers (with 1 /3rd representation). 12. It proposes for a democratic management and control of finance. While the corporate sector upholds the monopoly corporate management and control and the state sector supports the monopoly bureaucratic management and control, the Nature-Human Centric Development Model stands for democratic management and control of public companies by elected joint committees, each comprising 2/3rd elected members from ordinary share-holders and 1/3rd elected workers representatives in place of permanent corporators. All promoters’ shares purchased at cheaper rates (than the market rates) and owned by the corporate management be ended. 13. It encourages the spending of all development funds through elected peoples development committees (including the village committees and not above that), abrogating the current rule of allotting crores of rupees to each MP and lakhs of rupees to each MLA for development spending in their respective constituencies. 14. It proposes the restructuring of corporate capitalist oriented constitution and jurisprudence in each country on the basis of Nature-¬Human Centric Outlook. 15. It strongly favours the fundamental principle of safeguarding and protecting the interests of environmental and human resources. Any disregard of the foregoing principle to be dealt with the aim of reforming the offender, while prescribing punishment according to the severity of the offence. Punishment may include all humane forms that have existed in history except the sentence to death and human cruelty. 16. It firmly believes that all the constituent processes of human society, i.e., environmental, human and scientific-technological be controlled and conducted by the people. 17. It propounds the empowerment of people (or people-led governance) at five levels from the village/ward to national scale, with block, district and state categories in between, each enjoying powers to manage the three basic facets of social life – political, economic and cultural in its respective domain. 18. The process of empowerment be decided through the method of elections which will be entirely free where everyone has the right to participate as a candidate and to express his opinion as a voter. It urges for ending the state power monopoly of the corrupt and money and power-hungry political parties by introducing the rules of the state funding of elections of each individual candidate (who is required to produce one thousand signatures of his electors in state assembly and five thousand in central assembly elections), without any consideration to his party affiliation. Concerned voters right to recall any assembly member if 1/5th of voters demand in writing a repoll on the ground that the afore-mentioned member has lost the confidence of his electorate. 19. Political aspect demands the establishment of Political Assembly at 5 levels: (i.e., national, state (or regional), district, block and village) which stands for a democratic order and is based on fully democratic principles, functioning and structure. Such a model necessitates the introducing of the principles of the maximum-possible empowerment of the people in decision-making. 20. Economic aspect needs the establishment of development assembly at 5 levels for a rational and realistic economics whose concepts, laws and rules are required to be framed in the light of former’s 2 top priorities (i.e., humankind and environment) and 5 guiding principles (i.e., environmental promotion. Fair equality, productivity. Peoples-led democracy and all sided transparency). In view of human’s bio-social nature, both Adam smith’s basic economic principle of “self-interest” and Marxian basic economic principle of “state nationalization of every thing” are one-sided. But. Ironically both measure development, prosperity and progress in terms of monetary growth and not in the context of human and environmental development. 21. Cultural aspect requires establishment of cultural assembly at 5 levels that calls for a way of life (or life-style) that is embedded in basic human and environmental values and promotes rational humanist and environmentalist thinking, behavior and organization among the people. 22. The political, development and cultural Assemblies at 5 levels elect their respective political, development and cultural commissions of specialists to implement the agendas and policies framed by them (i.e., Assemblies). The commission of political specialists may deal with political issues like law and order, crime prevention, judicial working; the commission of development specialists may handle economic-financial matters like development planning, agriculture, industry, services. Finances and budget and the Commission of cultural specialists attend to education, science, technology, health, moral ethical-values and other cultural subjects, like languages, music, dancing, cine¬-industry, etc. 23. Every elected body, whether at the lower or the higher level will be sovereign within its respective domain. If at any time there is a difference of opinion between the two elected bodies or public institutions, the concerned units’ will appoint their respective representative groups to settle the concerned question through talks. If the matter is mutually settled, that will be accepted as a valid decision. In case the two cannot agree on a common decision, the matter will be got resolved through a referendum of the concerned people. 24 It maintains that the question of internal security of any territorial unit will be handled by the people concerned. The issue of border defence of different territorial units will be conducted by the defence agency formed by the concerned people according to the rules approved by the UN. 25 It will forbid every polluting technology, however productive capacity it may have, to operate in society. VIII To Sum Up Where will the non-implementation of the above said Nature-Human Centric Agenda lead to is shrouded in the womb of natural mystery. l Compiled and edited by R P Saraf Editor Nature-Human Centric Viewpoint E-mail:–Saraf_rp@rediffmail.com 1st October 2008

    Manjeet Maan

    July 21, 2009 at 8:41 am


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